Oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruit


Table II.23: Limonene (ii.7111315-162023-243437566693-98)

Limonene is a monoterpene-type compound typically found in essential oils of plants. Manufacturers frequently use limonene as a flavor and scent in food, household, and personal care products. In turmeric, limonene is found in the rhizome, leaf, and in the rhizome's essential oil.

Limonene is also found in many citrus fruits (e.g., oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and lime) and herbs. These include angelica, anise, bay leaf, bergamot, pepper, caraway, cardamom, celery seed, chaste-tree, cilantro, cinnamon, citronella, cumin, dill, echinacea, eucalyptus, fennel, frankincense, hops, horehound, juniper berries, lavender, magnolia, mint, myrrh, Queen Anne's lace, rosemary, sage, St. John's wort, tamarind, tarragon, tea tree, and winter and summer savory. Research suggests these antioxidant fruits and herbs could help relieve stress, thinning hair, acne, wrinkles, and cellulite.


Limonene is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substance. In studies, limonene also shows the following properties and healthful activities:

Limonene is also a good pesticide. It's toxic to:

Also referred to as a monoterpenoid. (ii.7)
Angelica archangelica(ii.15)
Laurus nobilis(ii.15)
Citrus bergamia(ii.48)
Adjuvant Substances—Partners that Increase Turmeric Compound Bioavailability. (ii.15)
Black pepper is the dried, unripe seed of the woody Piper nigrum vine, white pepper is the dried ripe fruit with the outer part removed. (ii.15)
Pimpinella anisum, Illicium verum(ii.48)
Carum carvi, Apium carvi(ii.15)
Elettaria cardamomum(ii.15)
Daucus carota, also referred to as wild carrot and carrot seed. (ii.15)
Apium graveolens(ii.15)
Vitex agnus-castus(ii.15)
Coriandrum sativum(ii.15)
Cinnamomum verum(ii.15)
Cymbopogon nardus, C. winterlanus(ii.15)
Cuminum cyminum(ii.15)
Anethum graveolens(ii.15)
Echinacea angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea(ii.15)
Citrus paradisi, C. racemosa, C. maxima(ii.15)
Eucalyptus globulus(ii.15)
Foeniculum vulgare(ii.15)
Boswellia serrata, B. carterii(ii.15)
Humulus lupulus(ii.15)
Marrubium vulgare(ii.15)
Juniperus communis(ii.15)
Lavandula angustifolia(ii.15)
Citrus limon(ii.15)
Citrus aurantifolia, C. medica(ii.15)
Magnolia biondii, M. denudate, M. sprengeri, M. wilsonii, M. salicifolia, M. sargentiana(ii.15)
Mentha piperita (peppermint). (ii.15)
Commiphora myrrha, C. molmol, C. madagascariensis, and C. erythraea(ii.15)
Citrus sinensis and species of C. aurantium (sweet and bitter oranges). (ii.15)
Rosmarinus officinalis(ii.15)
Salvia officinalis(ii.15)
Hypericum perforatum(ii.15)
Tamarindus indica(ii.15)
Artemisia dracunculus(ii.15)
Melaleuca alternifolia(ii.15)
Satureja hortensis (summery savory); S. montana (winter savory). (ii.15)
Such as docetaxel. (ii.96)
May prevent both growth and metastasis. (ii.96)
Inflammation of membranes that surround the lungs. (ii.13)
Ostrinia nubilalis(ii.20)
Musca domestica(ii.20)
Coptotermes formosanus(ii.20)
Blattella germanica(ii.20)

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